The stomach or belly area situated between the chest and the pelvis.
A hormonal or endocrine disorder that results from too much growth hormone in the body. It is characterised by heavy or promient facial features, enlarged hands and feet, among other symptoms and signs.
A benign (not cancerous) tumour of glandular tissue. Glandular means of or relating to a gland.
- Adrenal glands
Glands that are found just above each kidney. When these glands are stimulated by the pituitary gland (via adrenocorticotropic hormone) they produce hormones such as cortisol and aldosterone.
- Adrenocorticotropic hormone
A hormone produced by the pituitary gland that stimulates the adrenal glands. Abbreviated ACTH.
A substance that stimulates the action of another substance.
A specialist healthcare professional who administers anaesthetic and pain medications.
A substance that opposes the action of another substance.
- Antidiuretic hormone
A hormone that is stored and released from the pituitary gland that regulates water excretion by the kidney to maintain the correct body fluid and composition. Also called ADH or vasopressin.
Cessation (stopping) of breathing, especially during sleep.
The major blood vessels in the body that carry blood from the heart to all parts of the body.
A disease of the large blood vessels (arteries). Characterised by fats from the blood being deposited in the walls of the arteries to form areas known as plaques. These plaques can grow and block the arteries, which prevents blood from flowing freely through and can lead to heart attacks or stroke.
Body mass index. A measure of whether someone is of normal, over- or underweight. Based on a person’s height in metres and weight in kilograms. Often used, but a less reliable measure in people with acromegaly than in those without acromegaly.
A doctor who specialises in diagnosing and treating diseases of the heart and blood vessels (the cardiovascular system).
Heart (cardio) muscle (myo) disease (pathy).
- Carpal tunnel syndrome
A tingling or pain in the fingers caused by excess fluid retention in the ‘tissue tunnel’ of the wrist that causes pressure on the median nerve.
A type of fat that is found in the blood. High levels of cholesterol in the blood are linked to heart disease.
Persisting over a long period of time.
The large bowel or large intestine.
A hormone, secreted by the adrenal cortex. Among its many important actions, it is required for normal breakdown of proteins, carbohydrates and fats. It also helps maintain blood pressure and cardiovascular function and helps regulate the immune system’s inflammatory responses. In addition, the levels of cortisol in the body affect sleep patterns and mood.
- CT or CAT scan
A type of X-ray of the inside of the body. CT stands for computerised tomography. The test may also be called a CAT (computerised axial tomography) scan. The scan displays detailed pictures of the body’s internal organs on a computer screen. These pictures are cross-sections (slices) of the body.
Removing as much of a tumour as possible during surgery.
- Deep subcutaneous injection
An injection that is given deep below the skin. When a healthcare professional gives this type of injection, the skin should be stretched and the needle should be inserted at a 90° to the skin, rapidly and to its full length.
A healthcare professional who treats diseases of the teeth and gums and advises on oral hygiene.
- Diabetes mellitus
A disorder caused by too much sugar in the bloodstream. This happens when the body produces or uses less insulin than it needs. Insulin is the hormone required to help the body use sugar to produce energy. If the excess sugar in the blood is not controlled, the sugar is passed into the urine together with large amounts of water, resulting in excessive thirst and frequency of urination.
- Dopamine agonist
A compound that copies the action of a natural substance (dopamine) in the brain that helps transmit nerve signals and suppresses the secretion of prolactin (a hormone produced by the normal pituitary gland) and growth hormone in acromegaly.
Relating to glands that secrete hormone or other substances into the bloodstream.
- Endocrine glands
Glands that produce and release hormones.
- Endocrine nurse
A specialist nurse who treats people with endocrine disorders such as acromegaly and often acts as a bridge between primary care and secondary care.
A doctor that specialises in diagnosing and treating conditions caused by hormonal or endocrine imbalances in the body.
The study of endocrine glands and the function of hormones.
Abstaining from eating. Sometimes needed before a blood test to measure your growth hormone levels.
- Foot specialist
A healthcare professional, such as a chiropodist or podiatrist, who helps prevent, diagnose and treat foot problems.
A doctor that specialises in diagnosing and treating disorders of the gastrointestinal tract (digestive system) – which includes the food pipe (oesophagus), stomach, and gut (intestines) – and the liver.
Gigantism occurs when there is excessive growth or height during childhood or young adulthood. It is caused by too much growth hormone in the body.
A gland is an organ within the body that produces one or more substances (such as hormones) that are released into the bloodstream (i.e. by endocrine glands) or within the body’s cavities or on to the outer surface (i.e. by exocrine glands).
General practitioner. Also called a primary care doctor.
- Growth hormone
A hormone produced by the pituitary gland that regulates growth in children and affects protein, sugar and fat breakdown in the body in both children and adults. Excess levels of growth hormone causes gigantism in children and adolescents and acromegaly in adults. Abbreviated to GH.
- Growth hormone receptor antagonists
A medicine that prevents growth hormone from exerting its usual effects in the body and that can be used to treat acromegaly.
- Headache specialist
A healthcare professional with specific training in the management of headaches.
Relating to hormones.
A hormone is a chemical substance or messenger that is produced in a gland, travels in the bloodstream and triggers changes in other parts of the body.
The name for the hormone cortisol when it supplied as a medicine. Sometimes given to people after surgery for acromegaly as a precaution until tests confirm there is normal adrenal gland function.
High blood pressure.
Deficiency of one or more hormones produced by the normal pituitary gland.
An area of the brain just above the pituitary gland that regulates the release of hormones from the pituitary gland.
- Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)
Insulin-like growth factors are naturally occurring hormones produced mainly by the liver, but also by many other tissues, that mediate the typical growth hormone responses on cartilage, bone, muscle and fat tissues. IGF-1 is one example that can be measured in the blood and is used as a screening test for abnormally low or high amounts of growth hormone in the body.
- Intramuscular injection
An injection that is given into a muscle.
Within a vein.
A benign (not cancerous) tumour that is around 1 cm or larger in size.
A benign (not cancerous) tumour that is less than 1 cm or more in size.
Magnetic resonance imaging. Uses a magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to form a picture that is used to identify normal and diseased tissue. Magnetic resonance tomography or MRT is a less frequently used name for this imaging technique.
A specialist surgeon who treats people with conditions affecting the brain and nervous system.
A healthcare professional trained to provide general nursing care to patients.
A hormone produced by the ovaries in women. Oestrogen helps regulate the reproductive cycle and prepare the body for pregnancy.
An ophthalmologist is a specialist medical doctor who treats people with eye and vision disorders.
- Optic chiasm
The part of the brain where the nerves coming from the eyes (the optic nerves) partially cross. It is situated immediately above the pituitary gland and therefore vulnerable to pressure from an enlarging pituitary tumour.
Optometrists are healthcare professionals who specialise in treating eye disorders. They differ from ophthalmologists in their level of training and in what vision problems they can diagnose and treat.
- Oral glucose tolerance test
A test that measures the growth hormone and blood sugar response of the body to swallowing a volume of glucose after fasting. Abbreviated to OGTT.
Orthodontists are specialist dentists who are trained to diagnose and treat facial and dental irregularities.
- Pain specialist
A healthcare professional that has specific training in managing patients with pain.
- Pituitary gland
An endocrine gland at the base of the brain that plays a central role in the regulation of many hormone-secreting glands.
Straw-coloured fluid part of the blood.
- Primary care
The first-line of medical care that someone receives; for example, the care received from the person’s usual doctor or nurse or other general (non-specialist) healthcare provider.
A medical prediction about the probable cause and outcome of a disease.
Healthcare professional who specialises in taking images of the inside of someone’s body using radio waves (e.g., with an MRI or CT or CAT scanner).
Healthcare professional who specialises in using radiation to treat people.
A doctor that specialises in diagnosing and treating disorders of the bones and joints.
- Secondary care
The care received from a specialist doctor such as an endocrinologist or other specialist healthcare provider.
- Sleep specialist
A healthcare professional with specific training in the diagnosis and treatment of sleep-related illnesses, such as sleep apnoea.
A naturally occurring hormone produced by the hypothalamus (a part of the brain). It inhibits the release of hormones and other body chemicals, particularly growth hormone.
- Somatostatin analogues
Synthetic (man-made) medicines that are very similar to somatostatin, and are used to treat acromegaly.
- Subcutaneous injection
An injection that is given just under or beneath the skin.
A hormone produced mainly by the testes (testicles) in men.
- Thyroid gland
A gland located at the base of the neck which, when stimulated by a hormone produced by the pituitary gland, produces thyroxine.
A hormone released by the thyroid gland that regulates the level of energy production (metabolic rate) and is also essential for normal growth in children.
A swelling caused by an abnormal group of cells.